Extreme Effectiveness: Does Your Firm Match the Model?

Pyramid to a CircleDo you work for an extremely effective organization? No offense, but I doubt it, after writing a paper on the concept. Let’s try a “thought experiment,” though. I will share a high-level summary of the characteristics of an effective organization according to science, footnoted with my sources so you can double-check me. Then I’ll take each trait to its logical extreme to imagine a model organization that maximizes effectiveness. Finally, you compare that model to your employer.

After finding different definitions in journal articles,[1] I combined them to say an “effective organization” is an enterprise or a subunit able to choose and achieve goals it believes will maximize its performance. For this post I will ignore how the organization defines “performance,” and I’ll focus on organizations facing rapid change.

Choosing the Right Goals

Looking at that definition, it seems effectiveness can first fail in the choice of goals. Being an effective leader demands setting good objectives and aligning behavior to achieve them.[2] Yet leaders often set themselves up to fail. For example, many companies in the best position to benefit from “stretch goals,” those which seem impossible, are the least likely to use them, one study found.[3] Based on their review of many studies, two researchers concluded most organizations give up on their goals before achieving them, and wanted to explore why. They used computer simulations to suggest companies that set too many goals (eight) will consistently fail to achieve half of them, and should either split the goals among different units or tackle them one at a time.

Fortunately there is powerful evidence that pointing your objectives toward the overarching goal of customer satisfaction has direct impacts on revenues, market value, market share and other financial measures.[4] An example firm is Zappos, which gained strong and sustainable financial success through a hyper-emphasis on customer satisfaction.[5]

Given the low success rates of experts at making accurate predictions when working alone,[6] a more rational approach to goal-setting is to harness the power of crowdsourcing and decentralization, by letting subunit employees collectively choose goals fitting their specific customers.[7] This approach facilitates faster reaction to customer needs as well.[8] Decentralized companies also enjoy higher worker satisfaction and performance.[9]

Moving Past Bureaucracy

Yet most companies group workers by functions within hierarchical bureaucracies that assert centralized control.[10] A textbook explains that in 1922, “Pioneer sociologist Max Weber popularly characterized a bureaucracy as having a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.”[11] But the form dates back roughly 4,500 years,[12] and persists despite decades of opposition from well-known management gurus pointing out the negative performance impacts of bureaucracy at all levels.[13] Among other reasons, hierarchies tend to create functional “silos” that must balance requests from competing internal interests; often put their own priorities first; and create delays as silos wait for work upon which they are dependent.

“Post-bureaucratic theory” claims companies thus have been shifting away from classic hierarchies since confronting the business challenges of the 1970s and ‘80s.[14] A lot of concepts have been thrown under the post-bureaucracy umbrella, but a researcher found these are common: “low specialization, high decision autonomy, high participation in decisions, low formal standardization, and low punishment.”[15]

Not many companies have actually adopted post-bureaucratic forms despite the advantages.[16] We know from years of studies that most firms follow the same kinds of processes and use similar structures despite differences in market, industry, country, and century, a phenomenon deemed “isomorphism.”[17]

Clearly bureaucracies can be “effective” as defined—able to hit their goals. Most, if not all, Fortune 500 companies reflect the form, but that only means they are effective versus other bureaucracies. Indeed, a meta-analysis (study of studies) found isomorphism had only a slightly positive correlation to financial performance and firm reputation.[18] The small size of that correlation suggests there is a lot of room to outpace competitors by doing something different. That’s why researchers and practitioners argue for “matrix” or non-hierarchical structures built on cross-functional subunits.[19]

Traits of Effectiveness

Decision-Making Power

That structure suggests unusual process traits will maximize effectiveness, too. For example, participation by employees in decisions affecting them has been shown to improve: successful organizational change[20]; creativity and innovation[21]; employee performance, satisfaction, and turnover rates[22]; general team performance[23]; and specific process implementations in manufacturing,[24] health care,[25] and software development.[26]

Much has been written about the successes of a few companies which adopted radical self-government and succeeded as a result, including three I’ve written about. SEMCO questioned virtually every aspect of command and control, resulting in a turnaround from near failure to 25 years of sustained success. Zappos moved from a number of nontraditional management practices to full democratic governance with mixed marks for implementation, but apparently still hitting required financial standards. Namasté Solar created a democratically run cooperative and became the largest rooftop solar company in Colorado by one measure, surviving the Great Recession without layoffs.

Related to this is the value of open two-way communication. A company under high change pressure is in a state of constant organizational change (OC), and communication failures in the form of insufficient, inaccurate, or top-down-only communications are considered significant barriers to OC success.[27] Models for implementing OC emphasize frequent, accurate, two-way information flows.[28]

Teams and Individuals

Moving down to the team level, an ability to respond quickly to changing demands may be why Agile has proven more effective than waterfall in fast-change environments, especially at raising stakeholder satisfaction.[29] Most sources agree Agile teams should be full-stack,[30] in that each has all the technical skills needed to complete their portion of the product, and that Agile team members should:

  • Generally remain on the same teams rather than frequently changing, because of benefits including higher productivity, predictability, and quality[31];
  • Be collocated in the same physical space (or at least in the same or adjacent time zones), as collocated teams tend to be more productive than virtual teams[32] and to avoid the communication and conflict issues of virtual teams[33];
  • Exercise high degrees of control over how they do their work, because workers and teams are more productive when given more autonomy over how to please their customers[34]; and
  • Be self-managing teams, since these experience higher productivity and job satisfaction than manager-led teams if properly implemented and supported.[35]

To support individuals, “high-performance work systems” or “practices” improve return on assets,[36] worker commitment and related measures,[37] cooperation and knowledge sharing,[38] efficiency and flexibility,[39] and innovation[40]—and do so without harming sales or worker efficiency.[41] These practices include formally structured hiring processes; a commitment to training; higher, performance-based pay; and formal performance evaluations[42] in addition to the participation, communication, and autonomy practices I already covered.[43]

Building the Model

Taking all those points to their logical extremes, what would an organization built for maximum effectiveness look like?

Instead of a hierarchy of functional groups, our model is built on a foundation of cross-functional, self-directed, and full stack groupings I’ll call “pods.” Each pod is made up of multiple small teams fitting the same description (cross-functional, etc.). Every pod is dedicated to a specific set of end users (if a product pod) or customers (if a services pod). Each is effectively its own small-to medium-sized business, responsible for all aspects of satisfying its customers. Notice this reduces or eliminates issues of globalization such as competition about priorities among regions, globally required procedures that don’t fit everywhere, and inefficient global teams.

Functions like Human Resources, Information Technology, Legal, Finance, etc., are matrixed: Each specialist reports to a pod, however part of each person’s capacity is set aside for them to work with functional peers in “advisory teams” for the purpose of cross-organizational tasks like annual reports. Knowledge experts on techniques like Six Sigma or technical skills, whom we’ll call “coaches,” replace silo managers for needs like technical training, and form advisory teams for efforts like organizational technical certifications (e.g., ISO).

Each team (technical and advisory) is a self-directed work team using an Agile method appropriate to its workload, but otherwise following processes and rules it creates. Instead of having a team leader job, it has a “facilitator” or “coordinator” role which rotates among some or all team members, primarily responsible for facilitation of meetings and coaching on team processes. Entire teams, as opposed to individual members, report to “pod coaches” (replacing middle managers) with facilitation/coaching roles for multi-team planning, plus networking tasks between pods and with advisory teams.[44]

The pod coach role is made manageable by the Agile progress tracking tools; the lack of responsibility for project-related tasks, handled instead by the teams and Agile processes; team-led hiring practices; and the fact that single-reviewer annual performance appraisals are replaced with 360-degree evaluations of peers by peers.[45] Compensation is tied significantly to achievement of organization, pod, and team performance standards and goals, plus 360 results.

Major organizational decisions are made by org-wide vote. These include identity decisions (mission, values, etc.) and top-level stakeholder satisfaction goals. Smaller decisions are made by a Governing Council representing all employees. Teams elect representatives to Pod Councils with similar duties at the pod level, and the Pod Councils to the Governing Council, plus each advisory team is represented. To enable democratic governance, all organizational information not protected by law is available to all employees after signing nondisclosure agreements: Budgets and financial results, performance data, individuals’ compensation, customer information, contracts, and vendor information. Taken together these approaches maximize two-way communication, autonomy, and participation in decisions.

A Question of Courage

How does your organization compare? This model is post-bureaucratic, democratic, lean, and (lower-case) agile. Thus it is extremely effective, choosing and achieving the best goals for its business. Yes, it is wildly different from the typical work organization. Yet it reflects principles found in effective exceptions like Namasté Solar, SEMCO, and Zappos that have attained lasting financial success, high job and customer satisfaction, and positive notoriety.

At bottom all that is required to switch to this model is management courage.[46] Do you have it?

Subscribe

Please share this post at the bottom of the page.


[1] Achilles A. Armenakis and Arthur G. Bedeian, “Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and Research in the 1990s,” Journal of Management 25, no. 3 (June 1999): 293–315, https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639902500303; Richard M. Burton, Børge Obel, and Dorthe Døjbak Håkonsson, “How to Get the Matrix Organization to Work,” Journal of Organization Design 4, no. 3 (2015): 37–45, https://doi.org/10.7146/jod.22549; Randel S Carlock, The Need for Organization Development in Successful Entrepreneurial Firms (New York: Garland, 1994); “Definition of EFFECTIVE,” Merriam-Webster, 2019, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/effective; Aakanksha Kataria, Renu Rastogi, and Pooja Garg, “Organizational Effectiveness as a Function of Employee Engagement,” South Asian Journal of Management 20, no. 4 (October 2013): 56–73; Damien J. Power, Amrik S. Sohal, and Shams‐Ur Rahman, “Critical Success Factors in Agile Supply Chain Management ‐ An Empirical Study,” International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 31, no. 4 (May 2001): 247–65, https://doi.org/10.1108/09600030110394923; D.D. Warrick, “What Leaders Need to Know about Organizational Culture,” Business Horizons 60, no. 3 (May 2017): 395–404, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2017.01.011; Chuck Williams, MGMT9: Principles of Management, Ninth edition (Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2017); Wei Zheng, Baiyin Yang, and Gary N. McLean, “Linking Organizational Culture, Structure, Strategy, and Organizational Effectiveness: Mediating Role of Knowledge Management,” Journal of Business Research 63, no. 7 (July 2010): 763–71, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.06.005.

[2] Steven H. Appelbaum et al., “Organizational Outcomes of Leadership Style and Resistance to Change (Part One),” Industrial and Commercial Training 47, no. 2 (March 2, 2015): 73–80, https://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-07-2013-0044; Robert H. Schaffer, “Four Mistakes Leaders Keep Making,” Harvard Business Review, September 1, 2010, https://hbr.org/2010/09/four-mistakes-leaders-keep-making.

[3] Sim B Sitkin, “The Paradox of Stretch Goals: Organizations in Pursuit of the Seemingly Impossible,” Academy of Management Review, 2011, 23.

[4] Neil A. Morgan and Lopo Leotte Rego, “The Value of Different Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Metrics in Predicting Business Performance,” Marketing Science; Linthicum 25, no. 5 (October 2006): 426-439,548-549; Don O’Sullivan and John McCallig, “Customer Satisfaction, Earnings and Firm Value,” European Journal of Marketing; Bradford 46, no. 6 (2012): 827–43, http://dx.doi.org.csuglobal.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/03090561211214627.

[5] Tony Hsieh, “How I Did It: Zappos’s CEO on Going to Extremes for Customers,” Harvard Business Review, no. July–August 2010 (July 1, 2010), https://hbr.org/2010/07/how-i-did-it-zapposs-ceo-on-going-to-extremes-for-customers; D.D. Warrick, John F. Milliman, and Jeffery M. Ferguson, “Building High Performance Cultures,” Organizational Dynamics 45, no. 1 (January 2016): 64–70, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2015.12.008.

[6] Eric Barends, Denise M. Rousseau, and Rob B. Briner, “Evidence-Based Management: The Basic Principles” (Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Center for Evidence Based Management, 2014); H Mintzberg, Simply Managing: What Managers Do—and Can Do Better (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2013), http://web.b.ebscohost.com.csuglobal.idm.oclc.org/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/bm[email protected]sessionmgr120&vid=0&format=EB&lpid=lp_1&rid=0.

[7] R. Hackman and N. Katz, “Group Behavior and Performance” (2010); Jeremy Hope and Robin Fraser, Beyond Budgeting: How Managers Can Break Free from the Annual Performance Trap (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2003); Hsieh, “How I Did It”; Ricardo Semler, How to Run a Company with (Almost) No Rules, TED (Rio de Janeiro, 2015), https://www.ted.com/talks/ricardo_semler_how_to_run_a_company_with_almost_no_rules.

[8] Hope and Fraser, Beyond Budgeting: How Managers Can Break Free from the Annual Performance Trap; Hsieh, “How I Did It.”

[9] Hope and Fraser, Beyond Budgeting: How Managers Can Break Free from the Annual Performance Trap; M.A. Ajagbe et al., “How Organizational Structure Aids Business Performance,” CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management 7, no. 8 (August 2016): 64–68; Scott E. Seibert, Gang Wang, and Stephen H. Courtright, “Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological and Team Empowerment in Organizations: A Meta-Analytic Review.,” Journal of Applied Psychology 96, no. 5 (2011): 981; Ricardo Semler, “Managing without Managers,” Harvard Business Review, September 1, 1989, https://hbr.org/1989/09/managing-without-managers; Hadi Shafiee, Ehsan Razminia, and Narjes Khatun Zeymaran, “Investigating the Relationship between Organizational Structure Factors and Personnel Performance,” International Journal of Management, Accounting & Economics 3, no. 2 (February 2016): 160–65.

[10] Jeffrey R. Mueller, “Alternative Organizational Design and Its Impact on the Future of Work,” Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability; West Palm Beach 9, no. 1/2 (January 2014): 48–58; Ola Edvin Vie, “Have Post-Bureaucratic Changes Occurred in Managerial Work?,” European Management Journal 28, no. 3 (June 1, 2010): 182–94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2009.11.005.

[11] OpenStax, Introduction to Sociology 2e (Houston, Tex.: Rice University, 2015), https://openstax.org/details/books/introduction-sociology-2.

[12] Mueller, “Alternative Organizational Design and Its Impact on the Future of Work.”

[13] J Katzenbach and D Smith, The Wisdom of Teams (New York: Harper Business, 1993); C Manz, Business without Bosses: How Self-Managing Teams Are Building High Performing Companies (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993); Mintzberg, Simply Managing: What Managers Do—and Can Do Better; Mueller, “Alternative Organizational Design and Its Impact on the Future of Work”; W. Ouchi, Theory z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1981); L. Peter and R. Hull, The Peter Principle: Why Things Always Go Wrong (New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1972); Alessandro Pluchino, Andrea Rapisarda, and Cesare Garofalo, “The Peter Principle Revisited: A Computational Study,” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 389, no. 3 (February 1, 2010): 467–72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2009.09.045.

[14] Michael J. Handel, “Theories of Lean Management: An Empirical Evaluation,” Social Science Research 44 (March 1, 2014): 86–102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2013.10.009.

[15] Simon Dischner, “Organizational Structure, Organizational Form, and Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Competitive Test of the Bureaucratic and Post-Bureaucratic Views,” Scandinavian Journal of Management 31, no. 4 (December 1, 2015): 501–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2015.10.002.

[16] Mintzberg, Simply Managing: What Managers Do—and Can Do Better; Vie, “Have Post-Bureaucratic Changes Occurred in Managerial Work?”

[17] Ronald Batenburg, Jos Benders, and Heico van der Blonk, “Technical Isomorphism at Work: ERP‐embedded Similarity‐enhancing Mechanisms,” Industrial Management & Data Systems 108, no. 1 (February 2008): 60–69, https://doi.org/10.1108/02635570810844089; Jens Beckert, “Institutional Isomorphism Revisited: Convergence and Divergence in Institutional Change,” Sociological Theory 28, no. 2 (June 2010): 150–66, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2010.01369.x; Pursey PMAR Heugens and Michel W. Lander, “Structure! Agency! (And Other Quarrels): A Meta-Analysis of Institutional Theories of Organization,” Academy of Management Journal 52, no. 1 (2009): 61–85; Kee-hung Lai, Christina WY Wong, and TC Edwin Cheng, “Institutional Isomorphism and the Adoption of Information Technology for Supply Chain Management,” Computers in Industry 57, no. 1 (2006): 93–98; Mintzberg, Simply Managing: What Managers Do—and Can Do Better; Reed Nelson and Suresh Gopalan, “Do Organizational Cultures Replicate National Cultures? Isomorphism, Rejection and Reciprocal Opposition in the Corporate Values of Three Countries” 24 (September 1, 2003), https://doi.org/10.1177/01708406030247006; Wim A. Van der Stede, “The Effect of National Culture on Management Control and Incentive System Design in Multi-Business Firms: Evidence of Intracorporate Isomorphism,” European Accounting Review 12, no. 2 (July 2003): 263–85, https://doi.org/10.1080/0963818022000009859.

[18] Heugens and Lander, “Structure! Agency!(And Other Quarrels).”

[19] Burton, Obel, and Håkonsson, “How to Get the Matrix Organization to Work”; Helena Holmstrom Olsson, Hiva Alahyari, and Jan Bosch, “Climbing the ‘Stairway to Heaven’–A Mulitiple-Case Study Exploring Barriers in the Transition from Agile Development towards Continuous Deployment of Software” (IEEE, 2012), 392–99, https://doi.org/10.1109/SEAA.2012.54; David J. Paper, James A. Rodger, and Parag C. Pendharkar, “A BPR Case Study at Honeywell,” Business Process Management Journal 7, no. 2 (May 2001): 85–99, https://doi.org/10.1108/14637150110389416; Semler, “Managing without Managers”; Warrick, Milliman, and Ferguson, “Building High Performance Cultures.”

[20] Kim Dikert, Maria Paasivaara, and Casper Lassenius, “Challenges and Success Factors for Large-Scale Agile Transformations: A Systematic Literature Review,” Journal of Systems and Software 119 (September 2016): 87–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2016.06.013; Dennis G. Erwin and Andrew N. Garman, “Resistance to Organizational Change: Linking Research and Practice,” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 31, no. 1 (February 6, 2010): 39–56, https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731011010371; John S. Toussaint and Kathryn Correia, “Why Process Is U.S. Health Care’s Biggest Problem,” Harvard Business Review, March 19, 2018, https://hbr.org/2018/03/why-process-is-u-s-health-cares-biggest-problem; Karen van Dam, Shaul Oreg, and Birgit Schyns, “Daily Work Contexts and Resistance to Organisational Change: The Role of Leader–Member Exchange, Development Climate, and Change Process Characteristics,” Applied Psychology 57, no. 2 (April 2008): 313–34, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00311.x.

[21] Yuosre F. Badir, Bettina Büchel, and Christopher L. Tucci, “A Conceptual Framework of the Impact of NPD Project Team and Leader Empowerment on Communication and Performance: An Alliance Case Context,” International Journal of Project Management 30, no. 8 (November 1, 2012): 914–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2012.01.013.

[22] Peter Cappelli and David Neumark, “Do ‘High Performance’ Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?” (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999).

[23] Greg L. Stewart, “A Meta-Analytic Review of Relationships between Team Design Features and Team Performance,” Journal of Management 32, no. 1 (February 2006): 29–55, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305277792.

[24] Ruben Pinedo‐Cuenca, Pablo Gonzalez Olalla, and Djoko Setijono, “Linking Six Sigma’s Critical Success/Hindering Factors and Organizational Change (Development): A Framework and a Pilot Study,” ed. Djoko Setijono, International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 3, no. 4 (November 23, 2012): 284–98, https://doi.org/10.1108/20401461211284752.

[25] Toussaint and Correia, “Why Process Is U.S. Health Care’s Biggest Problem.”

[26] Tore Dybå and Torgeir Dingsøyr, “Empirical Studies of Agile Software Development: A Systematic Review,” Information and Software Technology 50, no. 9–10 (August 2008): 833–59, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2008.01.006.

[27] Hale Kaynak, “The Relationship between Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Firm Performance,” Journal of Operations Management 21, no. 4 (July 2003): 405–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(03)00004-4; van Dam, Oreg, and Schyns, “Daily Work Contexts and Resistance to Organisational Change”; Rebecca van Dijk and Rolf van Dick, “Navigating Organizational Change: Change Leaders, Employee Resistance and Work-Based Identities,” Journal of Change Management 9, no. 2 (June 2009): 143–63, https://doi.org/10.1080/14697010902879087; H. Jack Walker, Achilles Armenakis, and Jeremy Bernerth, “Factors Influencing Organizational Change Efforts: An Integrative Investigation of Change Content, Context, Process and Individual Differences,” Journal of Organizational Change Management 20, no. 6 (2007): 761–73.

[28] Association of Change Management Professionals, Standard for Change Management (Winter Springs, FL: Association of Change Management Professionals, 2014); John Kotter, Leading Change (Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996); Jim Morgan, “An Evidence-Based Model for Agile Organizational Change,” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3306206.

[29] Project Management Institute, “Achieving Greater Agility: The People and Process Drivers That Accelerate Results,” 2017; Pedro Serrador and Jeffrey K. Pinto, “Does Agile Work? — A Quantitative Analysis of Agile Project Success,” International Journal of Project Management 33, no. 5 (July 2015): 1040–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2015.01.006.

[30] Dybå and Dingsøyr, “Empirical Studies of Agile Software Development”; “Full Stack Scrum,” Full Stack ScrumTM, 2019, http://fullstackscrum.net/; “Full Stack Scrum”; “Manifesto for Agile Software Development,” 2001, http://agilemanifesto.org/; “Scrum Guide,” 2017, https://www.scrumguides.org/scrum-guide.html; K. Schwaber and M. Beedle, Agile Software Development with Scrum (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001).

[31] R Huckman, B Staats, and D Upton, “Team Familiarity, Role Experience, and Performance: Evidence from Indian Software Services,” Management Science 55, no. 1 (2009): 85; L Maccherone, “The Impact of Agile Quantified” (2014); C Melo, D Cruzes, and R Conradi, “Interpretative Case Studies on Agile Team Productivity and Management,” Information and Software Technology 55 (2013): 412.

[32] A. Joshi, M. Lazarova, and H. Liao, “Getting Everyone on Board: The Role of Inspirational Leadership in Geographically Dispersed Teams,” Organization Science 20, no. 1 (2009): 240; L. Martins, L Gilson, and M. Maynard, “Virtual Teams: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go from Here?,” Journal of Management 30, no. 6 (2004): 805; R.R. Patrashkova-Volzdoska et al., “Examining a Curvilinear Relationship between Communication Frequency and Team Performance in Cross-Functional Project Teams,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 50, no. 3 (August 2003): 262–69, https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2003.817298.

[33] C. Axtell et al., “From a Distance,” People Management 10, no. 6 (March 2004): 39–40; P. Hinds and D. Bailey, “Out of Sight, out of Sync: Understanding Conflict in Distributed Teams,” Organization Science 14, no. 6 (2003): 615.

[34] Dischner, “Organizational Structure, Organizational Form, and Counterproductive Work Behavior”; Paper, Rodger, and Pendharkar, “A BPR Case Study at Honeywell”; Seibert, Wang, and Courtright, “Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological and Team Empowerment in Organizations.”

[35] L Ankarlo and J Callaway, Implementing Self-Directed Work Teams (Boulder, CO: CareerTrack, Inc, 1996); T. Capozzoli, “Succeed with Self-Directed Work Teams,” Supervision 65, no. 6 (2004): 26; C. Douglas and W. Gardner, “Transition to Self-Directed Work Teams: Implications of Transition Time and Self-Monitoring for Managers’ Use of Influence Tactics,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 25 (2004): 47; Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams; Manz, Business without Bosses: How Self-Managing Teams Are Building High Performing Companies; Melo, Cruzes, and Conradi, “Interpretative Case Studies on Agile Team Productivity and Management”; John P. Millikin, Peter W. Hom, and Charles C. Manz, “Self-Management Competencies in Self-Managing Teams: Their Impact on Multi-Team System Productivity,” The Leadership Quarterly 21, no. 5 (October 1, 2010): 687–702, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.07.001; J. Orsburn et al., Self-Directed Work Teams: The New American Challenge (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1990).

[36] Combs et al., “How Much Do High-Performance Work Practices Matter?”

[37] Kehoe and Wright, “The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors.”

[38] Collins and Clark, “STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES, TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE.”

[39] Evans and Davis, “High-Performance Work Systems and Organizational Performance.”

[40] Laursen and Foss, “New Human Resource Management Practices, Complementarities and the Impact on Innovation Performance.”

[41] Cappelli and Neumark, “Do ‘High Performance’ Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?”

[42] C. J. Collins and K. D. Clark, “Strategic Human Resource Practices, Top Management Team Social Networks, and Firm Performance: The Role of Human Resource Practices in Creating Organizational Competitive Advantage,” Academy of Management Journal 46, no. 6 (December 1, 2003): 740–51, https://doi.org/10.2307/30040665.

[43] Cappelli and Neumark, “Do ‘High Performance’ Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?”; James Combs et al., “How Much Do High-Performance Work Practices Matter? A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on Organizational Performance,” Personnel Psychology 59, no. 3 (2006): 501–528; W. Randy Evans and Walter D. Davis, “High-Performance Work Systems and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of Internal Social Structure,” Journal of Management 31, no. 5 (October 2005): 758–75, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279370; Rebecca R. Kehoe and Patrick M. Wright, “The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors,” Journal of Management 39, no. 2 (February 2013): 366–91, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310365901; Keld Laursen and Nicolai J. Foss, “New Human Resource Management Practices, Complementarities and the Impact on Innovation Performance,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 27 (2003): 243–63.

[44] Eng Chew and Kenneth Dovey, “Learning to Create Sustainable Value in Turbulent Operational Contexts: The Role of Leadership Practices,” The Learning Organization; Bradford 21, no. 4 (2014): 243–57, http://dx.doi.org.csuglobal.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/TLO-05-2013-0019; Collins and Clark, “STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES, TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE”; Mintzberg, Simply Managing: What Managers Do—and Can Do Better.

[45] Ian O’Boyle, “Traditional Performance Appraisal versus 360-Degree Feedback,” Training & Management Development Methods; Bradford 27, no. 1 (2013): 201-207,705; J. Zenger and J. Folkman, The Extraordinary Leader: Turning Good Managers into Great Leaders (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2009).

[46] Benjamin Zhang, “‘There’s a Storm Coming’: Emirates Boss Warns Airlines of a Looming Seismic Shift in Technology,” Business Insider, 2018, http://www.businessinsider.com/emirates-boss-tim-clark-warn-airline-industry-technology-blockchain-2018-2; Semler, How to Run a Company with (Almost) No Rules.

Share this post: